The Cook Islands became a self-governing nation on 4th August, 1965. This page reflects on that very special day in the history of the nation...a day which is a national holiday and around which two weeks of celebrations (Te Maeva Nui) take place each year
Her Majesty the Queen (Queen Elizabeth II) - who, to this day remains the official head of state - sent "warmest greetings" to her people on Constitution Day, 1965. It was another seven years before she visited in person when she opened Rarotonga airport. But said in this letter "It is my sincere wish that this important day in your long history will be blest by Almighty God and will be the door to a happy and prosperous future"
Albert Henry thought big...he wanted big ships and big planes to come to Rarotonga. And he encouraged foreign investment. Today's docks and international airport are down to his vision and his hard work.
He also introduced a universal old age pension (10 shillings a week = 50 UK pence), and a policy still in force today that no building in the Cook Islands should be higher than the highest coconut tree.
But Henry's political career came to an ignominious end. He was tried and convicted of election crimes in 1978 and his government removed from office. To this day though, he's much loved and an important part of the Islands' history and development
Parliament, which is based on the UK model, has two houses. The lower house or Legislative Assembly has 25 elected members - 24 from districts of the Cook Islands and one representing the many Cook Islanders who live overseas. The Members of Parliament represent districts and islands. The upper house, or House of Ariki, is made up of traditional leaders, who provide consultation and advice
T he Parliament buildings on Rarotonga are not quite a rival for the UK's Westminster, but they're no less important constitutionally. They were once temporary buildings for contractors who built the airport back in the early 70s. The inside of the buildings were gutted and long overdue modernisation took place in 2019. The public can sit in on sessions which are also broadcast live on the government's Facebook page
Cultural competitions have been a focal part of the constitution celebrations from the start. But until recently, dancing and singing performances were used by islanders to praise political parties and lobby for projects on their islands. Changes came as recently as 2002 when the Culture Secretary of the time decided that the political rally format should be ditched in favour of one that focussed on unity through cultural heritage. And that's how it's been ever since.
The Constitution Celebrations were renamed in 2001 because the Prime Minister of the time wanted a Cook Islands Maori name to capture the essence and joy of the annual festival. They are now called "Te Maeva Nui" which translates as "the major or most important celebration".
The Cook Islands is a self governing nation "in free association with New Zealand". That means it makes its own laws and governs itself, but New Zealand is responsible for External Affairs and Defence in consultation with the Cook Islands government. All Islanders also have New Zealand citizenship and this right is protected under the constitution
The Constitution of the Islands explains the flag as follows:
BLUE - is the colour most expressive of our Nation, it is representative of the vast area of the Pacific Ocean in which the islands of the Cook Islands are scattered. Blue also depicts the peaceful nature of the inhabitants of our islands. THE UNION JACK indicates our historical association with and membership of the British Commonwealth. The 15 WHITE STARS represent the 15 islands of the group
The first flag was green. It was replaced by the current one in August, 1979